The V-Plan Diet - References | Viva!

The V-Plan Diet - References


1. Jotangia D, Moody A, Stamatakis E,Wardle H,April 2005. Obesity among children under 11. (Health and Social Care Information Centre/Department of Health.)
2. Richardson SA, Goodman N, Hastorf AH, Dornbusch SM, 1961. Cultural uniformity in reaction to physical disabilities. Am Soc Rev.;26: 241–247
3. Stunkard A, Burt V, 1967. Obesity and the body image. II. Age at onset of disturbances in the body image. Am J Psychiatry;123:1443–1447
4.World Health Organization, 2005. Preventing Chronic Diseases: A Vital Investment.WHO Global Report.
5. DailyDietTracker,Wednesday 31 August 2005. DailyDietTracker Newsletter.
6. House of Commons Health Committee, 2004. Obesity Third Report of Session 2003-2004. (London: The Stationery Office Limited).
7.World Health Organization, 2000.WHO Consultation on Obesity. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic.
8. McCarthy HD, Ashwell M, 2006. A study of central fatness using waist-to-height ratios in UK children and adolescents over two decades supports the simple message - ‘keep your waist circumference to less than half your height’. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Jan 24;
[Epub ahead of print]
9. Geissler C and Powers H (Eds.) 2005. Human Nutrition. p. 382/3, 422. (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone).
10.World Health Organization, 2003. Global Strategy On Diet, Physical Activity and Health.
11.Walsh S, 2003. Plant Based Nutrition and Health p. 16. (The Vegan Society).
12. Gibney MJ, Elia M, Ljungqvist O, Dowsett J (Eds.) 2005. Clinical Nutrition. p. 288. (Blackwell Publishing).
13. International Obesity TaskForce Press Release, June 1 2005. 14th European Congress on Obesity. International Obesity TaskForce.
14. National Forum for Coronary Heart Disease Prevention, May 1993. Food For Children: Influencing choice and investing in health. p.20.
15. Staffieri JR, 1967. A study of social stereotype of body image in children. J Perspect Soc Psychol.;7: 101–104
16. Sabate J, 2003. Nut consumption and body weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 78: 647s-50s.
17. Singh PN, Sabate J, Fraser GE, 2003. Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans? Am J Clin Nutr; 78 (Suppl): 526S– 532S
18. Haddad EH,Tanzman JS, 2003.What do vegetarians in the United States eat? Am J Clin Nutr; 78 (Suppl): 626S–632S
19. Appleby PN,Thorogood M, Mann JI, Key TJ, 1998. Low body mass index in non-meat eaters: the possible roles of animal fat, dietary fibre and alcohol. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord; 22: 454–460
20. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, et al, 2003. Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr; 78 (Suppl): 610S–616S
21. Davis BC, Kris-Etherton PM, 2003. Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications. Am J Clin Nutr; 78 (Suppl): 640S–646S
22. Sacks FM, Castelli WP, Donner A, Kass EH, 1975. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins in vegetarians and controls. N Engl J Med; 292: 1148–1151
23. Janelle KC, Barr SI, 1995. Nutrient intakes and eating behavior scores of vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. J Am Diet Assoc; 95: 180–186, 189, 187–188
24. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Popovich DG,Vidgen E, Mehling CC,Vuksan V, et al., 2001. Effect of a very high-fiber vegetable, fruit, and nut diet on serum lipids and colonic function. Metabolism; 50:494–503
25. Rajaram S, 2003.The effect of vegetarian diet, plant foods, and phytochemicals on hemostasis and thrombosis. Am J Clin Nutr; 78 (Suppl): 552S–558S
26. Key TJ, Fraser GE,Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Bernal V, Reeves G, et al, 1998. Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: a collaborative analysis of 8300 deaths among 76,000 men and women in five prospective studies. Public Health Nutr; 1: 33–41
27. Singh PN, Lindsted KD, 1998. Body mass and 26-year risk of mortality from specific diseases among women who never smoked. Epidemiology; 9: 246–254
28. Snowdon DA, Phillips RL, Fraser GE, 1984. Meat consumption and fatal ischemic heart disease. Prev Med; 13: 490–500
29. Fraser GE, Lindsted KD, Beeson WL, 1995. Effect of risk factor values on lifetime risk of and age at first coronary event.The Adventist Health Study. Am J Epidemiol; 142: 746–758
30.Thorogood M, Mann J, Appleby P, McPherson K, 1994. Risk of death from cancer and ischaemic heart disease in meat and non-meat eaters. BMJ; 308: 1667–1670
31. Enas A, Senthilkumar A, Chennikkara H, Bjurlin MA, 2003. Prudent Diet and Preventive Nutrition from Pediatrics to Geriatrics: Current Knowledge and Practical Recommendations. Coronary Artery Disease in Asian Indians (CADI) Research Foundation, and
University of Illinois, Chicago, USA
32. Spencer EA, et al, 2003. Diet and body mass index in 38,000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans. International Journal of Obesity. 27: 728-34.
33.Tackling Obesity in England, Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General HC 220 Session 2000-2001: 15 February 2001. (The
National Audit Office).
34. Pixley F, et al, 1985. Effect of vegetarianism on the development of gallstones in women. British Medical Journal. 291: 11-12.
35. Frentzel-Beyme R, Claude J, Eilber U, 1988. Mortality among German vegetarians: first results after five years of follow up. Nutrition and Cancer; 11: 117-26.
36. Ellis FR and Montegriffo VME, 1970.Veganism, clinical findings and investigations. Am J Clin Nutr; 23: 249-255.
37. Berenson G et al, 1998. Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis to children and young adults.The Bogalusa Heart Study. New Eng J Med.; 338: 1650-1656.
38. Key T, Fraser GE,Thorogood M, et al, 1999. Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr.; 70 (Suppl.): 516S-524S.
39. Bergan JG and Brown PT, 1980. Nutritional status of “new” vegetarians. J.Am. Diet. Assoc.; 76: 151-155.
40. Dwyer JT, 1988. Health aspects of vegetarian diets. Am J Clin Nutr.; 48: 712-738.
41. Key TJ and Davey G, 1996. Prevalence of obesity is low in people who do not eat meat. Brit Med Journ.; 313: 816-817.
42. Berkow SE, Barnard ND, 2006.Vegetarian Diets and Weight Status. Nutrition Reviews; 64(4): 175-88.
43.Walsh S, 2003. Plant Based Nutrition and Health p. 21. (The Vegan Society).
44. Ornish D, Brown SE et al, 1990. Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? Lancet; 336: 129-133.
45. Dansinger ML et al, 2003. One year effectiveness of the Atkins, Ornish,Weight Watchers and Zone Diets in decreasing body weight and heart disease risk Presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions, November 12, 2003, Orlando, Florida.
46. Freedman MR, King J and Kennedy E, 2001. Popular diets: A scientific review. Obesity Research; 9:1S-40S.
47.T. Colin Campbell, 2005.The China Study. p. 139. (Benbella).
48. Barnard ND, Scialli AR,Turner-McGrievy G, Lanou AJ and Glass J, 2005.The effects of a low-fat, plantbased dietary intervention on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Am J Med; 118: 991-997.
49. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Autumn 2005. PCRM’s Study Shows the Weight-Loss Power of a Low-Fat Vegan Diet. Good Medicine Autumn 2005, p7. (Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine).
50.T. Colin Campbell, 2005.The China Study. p. 140. (Benbella).
51. Anne M. Fletcher, M.S., R.D., L.D.
52. Oliveira M and Moura AS, 2003.Weight Loss Associated With a Daily Intake of Three Apples or Three Pears Among Overweight Women. Nutrition; 19: 253-256.
53. Dreon DM et al, 1999. A very-low-fat diet is not associated with improved lipoprotein profiles in men with a predominance of large, low-density lipoproteins. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 70: 412-8.
54. Rolls BJ, Ello-Martin JA and Tohill BC, 2004.What can intervention studies tell us about the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and weight management? Nutrition Reviews; 62: 1-17.
55. Spock B, 1999. Dr Spock’s Baby and Child Care. (Simon and Schuster).
56. Physicians Committee For Responsible Medicine, 2005.Weight Control and Obesity Prevention in Children. Available from
57. Department of Health, 1991. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report of the Panel on Dietary Reference Values of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. (London: HMSO).
58. Geissler C and Powers H (Eds.) 2005. Human Nutrition. p. 385. (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone).
59. Blundell JE, MacDiarmid JI, 1997. Fat as a risk factor for overconsumption: Satiation, satiety, and patterns of eating. J Am Diet Assoc.; 97: S63-S69.
60.WHO/FAO, 2003.WHO Technical Report Series 916. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. (Geneva:WHO).
61.Wang YQ,Thomas B, Ghebremeskel K and Crawford MA, 2004. Changes in Protein and Fat Balance of Some Primary Foods: Implications for Obesity? Institute of Brain Chemistry and Human Nutrition (IBCHN). London Metropolitan University.
62. Kahn HS et al, 1997. Stable behaviors associated with adults’ 10-year change in body mass index and likelihood of gain at the waist. American Journal of Public Health; 87: 747-54.
63. Food Standards Agency/Department of Health, 2003.The National Diet & Nutrition Survey: adults aged 19 to 64 years. (London:TSO).
64. Geissler C and Powers H (Eds.) 2005. Human Nutrition. Section CD 33.4(a) (Elsevier Churchill Livingstone).
65. Observer Food Monthly, Sunday May 15, 2005. It’s supposed to be lean cuisine. So why is this chicken
fatter than it looks?,9950,1481443,00.html
66. Buttriss J, 1999. n-3 Fatty Acids and Health. P.1. (BNF).
67. Pereira C et al, 2001.The Alpha-Linolenic Acid Content of Green Vegetables Commonly Available in Australia. Int. J.Vitamin. Ntr. Res.; 71(4): 223-228.
68. Food Standards Agency, 2005. How to be a healthy weight. Available at
69.Walsh S, 2003. Plant Based Nutrition and Health p. 77. (The Vegan Society)
70. Schwartz RP, 2003. Soft drinks taste good, but the calories count. Journal of Pediatrics; 142: 599-601.
71. Gregory J, Low S, 2000. National Diet and Nutrition Survey of young people aged 4-18 years. Vol. 1 Report of the diet and nutrition survey. (London: HMSO).
72. Poppitt SD, Keogh GF, Prentice AM et al, 2002. Long-term effects of ad libitum low-fat, high carbohydrate diets on body weight and serum lipids in overweight subjects with metabolic syndrome. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 75: 11-20.
73. Raben A, Astrup A,Vasilaras TH et al, 2002.The CARMEN trial: increased intake of carbohydrates – simple or complex – and unchanged blood lipids in overweight subjects. Ugeskr Laeger; 164(5): 627-31. (Abstract only)
74.Walsh S, 2003. Plant Based Nutrition and Health p. 97-99. (The Vegan Society).
75. Brand-Miller J, 2005. Optimizing the cardiovascular outcomes of weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr; 81: 949-50.
76. Leon DA and McCambridge J, 2006. Liver cirrhosis mortality rates in Britain from 1950 to 2002: an analysis of routine data.The Lancet; 367:52-56.
77. Prentice AM, 1995. Alcohol and Obesity. International Journal of Obesity; 19: S44-S50.
78.WHO technical support series 916, 2003. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity. Report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. Geneva:WHO.
79. Swinburn BA, Caterson I, Seidell JC et al, 2004. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity. Public Health Nutrition; 7: 123-46.
80. French SA, Story M, Jeffery RW, 2001. Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Annu Rev Public Health; 22: 309-35.
81. Stubbs RJ,Whybrow S, 2004. Energy density, diet composition and palatability: influences on overall food energy intake in humans. Physiol Behav; 81: 755-64.
82. Popitt SD, Prentice AM, 1996. Energy density and its role in the control of food intake: evidence from metabolic and community studies. Appetite; 26: 153-74.
83. Prentice AM and Jebb SA, 2003. Fast foods, energy density and obesity: a possible mechanistic link. Obes Rev.; 4(4): 187-94.
84. Food Standards Agency, 2002. McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, Sixth Summary Edition. (Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry)
85. Drewnowski A, Darmon N, 2005.The economics of obesity: dietary energy and energy cost. Am J Clin Nutr.; 82 (1 Suppl): 265S-273S.
86. Mattes RD, Hollis J, Hayes D, Stunkard AJ, 2005. Appetite: Measurement and Manipulation Misgivings. J Am Diet Assoc; 105: S87-S97.
87. Stubbs RJ, Harbron CG, Murgatroyd PR, Prentice AM, 1995. Covert manipulation of dietary fat and energy density: effect on substrate flux and food intake in men eating ad libitum. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 62: 316-329.
88. Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB, 2001. Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev.;59: 129 –139.
89. Eisenstein J, Roberts SB, Dallal G et al, 2002. High-protein weight-loss diets: Are they safe and do they work? A review of the experimental and epidemiological data. Nutr Rev; 60: 189-200.
90. Halton TL, Hu FB, 2004.The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: A critical review. J Am Coll Nutr; 23: 373-385.
91.Westman EC,Yancy WS, Edman JS,Tomlin KF, Perkins CE. Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program. Am J Med 2002; 113: 30–6.
92. Foster GD, et al, 2003. A randomized trial of a lowcarb diet for obesity. N Engl J Med; 348: 2082–90.
93. Samaha FF, et al, 2003. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med; 348: 2074–81.
94. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Updated May 25, 2004. Analysis of Health Problems Associated with High-Protein, High-Fat, Carbohydrate-Restricted Diets Reported via an Online Registry.
96. Zemel, M.B.,Thompson,W., Milstead, A., Morris, K. and Campbell P. 2004. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obesity Research; 12 (4): 582-590.
97. Zemel, M.B., Richards, J., Russel, J., Milstead, A., Gehardt, L. and Silva, E. 2005. Dairy augmentation of total and central fat loss in obese subjects. International Journal of Obesity; 29 (4): 341-7.
98. Lanou A.J. 2005. Data do not support recommending dairy products for weight loss. Obesity Research; 13 (1): 191.
99.Thompson,W.G., Rostad Holdman, N., Janzow, D..J, Slezak, J.M., Morris, K.L. and Zemel, M.B. 2005. Effect of energy-reduced diets high in dairy products and fiber on weight loss in obese adults. Obesity Research; 13 (8): 1344-53.
100. Barr S.I. 2003. Increased dairy product or calcium intake: is body weight or composition affected in humans? Journal of Nutrition; 133 (1): 245S-248S.
101. Berkey, C.S., Rockett, H.R.,Willett,W.C. and Colditz, G.A. 2005. Milk, dairy fat, dietary calcium, and weight gain: a longitudinal study of adolescents. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine; 159 (6): 543-50.
102. DEFRA 2001. Cited in Henley Centre report prepared for Ofcom – as reported in Childhood Obesity – Food Advertising in Context. 22 July 2004. Ofcom (the Office of Communications).
103. DiPietro L, 1995. Physical activity, body weight and adiposity: an epidemiologic perspective. Exercise and Sports Science Reviews; 23: 275-303.
104. Coakley EH et al, 1998. Predictors of weight change in men: Results from The Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. International Journal of Obesity; 22: 89-96.
105. Department of Health, 2004. At least five a week: evidence on the impact of physical activity and its relationship to health. (London: Department of Health).
106. Hatano Y, 1993. Use of the pedometer for promoting daily walking exercise. ICHPER; 29: 4-8
107.Tudor-Locke C, Ainsworth BE,Whitt MC, et al, 2001.The relationship between pedometer-determined
ambulatory activity and body composition variables. Int J Obes; 25: 1571-8
108. President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, 2001.The President’s Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program. Bloomington (IN): President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, US Department of Health and Human Services.

What’s a Vegetarian?
A person who avoids eating red and white meats, fish and all other water creatures such as prawns and lobsters; and who also avoids slaughter by-products such as gelatine (made from horns, hooves, bones
etc), lard and cochineal (crushed insects). A vegetarian may or may not eat dairy products, free range eggs or honey.

What’s a Vegan?
A person who tends to be much healthier than their dairy and meat-eating counterparts! Why? Because a vegan eats no animal products – red and white meats, fish and other water creatures, eggs, dairy and
insect products such as honey and cochineal. That means no damaging animal protein, animal fats or cholesterol in their diet. Far from going short, they can – and are more likely to – pack their diet with a wide range of healthy, disease busting foods high in vegetable protein, fibre, complex carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and good fats. These include fresh fruit and veg, a wide range of pulses, including peas, beans and lentils, wholegrain pastas, breads and rice, nuts and seeds, herbs and spices and vegetable
oils – especially flaxseed and virgin olive oil.