Vegetarians International Voice for Animals


1. Ben Bradshaw, 15.09.99, Letter to Viva!.

2. Farm Animal Reform Movement press release, 14.12.99

3. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food: Annual figures for 1998.

4. MAFF, January 2000. Meat Hygiene Enforcement Report.

5. The Welfare of Animals (Slaughter or Killing) Regulations 1995. HMSO Publication.

6. European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General, 1999. Final report of a mission carried out in the United Kingdom from 30 July to 6 August concerning food production: Poultry Meat.

7. Jane Downes, Principal Official Veterinary Surgeon, MHS, 12.05.00. Letter to Viva!

8. Temple Grandin, 1998. Objective scoring of animal handling and stunning practices at slaughter plants. The Meat Hygienist, June edition.

9. Meat Hygiene Service, 2000. Animal Welfare Review.

10. Meat Hygiene Service, 1997/8. Animal Welfare Survey.

11. N.G. Gregory, 1996, Welfare and Hygiene During Preslaughter Handling. Meat Science 43, 35-46.

12. R.R. Cawthorne, 03.02.00. Letter to Viva!.

13. Correspondence between Viva! and abattoir owners, 1999.

14. Farm Animal Welfare Council, 1999. Annual Review 99/2000. MAFF.

15. Farm Animal Welfare Council, 1984. Report on the Welfare of Livestock (Red Meat Animals) at the Time of Slaughter. HMSO.

16. MAFF, 1996. Guidance Note on the Licensing and Training of Slaughtermen.

17. Scientific Veterinary Committee Animal Welfare Section. 1996. Report of the Slaughter and Killing of Animals. Directorate-General for Agriculture; European Commission.

18. M. Benneworth, MAFF Animal Welfare Division Branch D, 19.01.00. Letter to Viva!.

19. Jane Downes, Principal Official Veterinary Surgeon, MHS, 19.01.00 Letter to Viva!.

20. RSPCA Farm Animals Information, March 1999. The Slaughter of Food Animals.

21. Department of Food Animal Science web-site:

22. A.B.M. Raj, 1996. Aversive Reactions of turkeys to argon, carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide and argon. The Veterinary Record 138, 592-593.

23. S. Wotton, 1996. Sticking techniques and exsanguination in pigs, sheep and calves, Meat Focus International (July edition), 234-237.

24. Humane Slaughter Association, 1998. Captive Bolt Stunning of Livestock, 2nd Edition.

25. C.C. Day, P.E. Whittington, 1990. A survey of commercial practices used in the stunning of cattle. The Times, 23.02.90.

26. McDonalds and AMI (American Meat Institute) Foundation. Video: 'Good Animal Handling for Beef Processors'.

27. R. Ewbank et al, 1992. Reactions of cattle to head-restraint at stunning: a practical dilemma. Animal Welfare 1: 55-63.

28. M.H. Anil, 1999. Potential contamination of beef carcasses with brain tissue at slaughter. Paper sent to Viva! before publication.

29. Viva! press release, 21.10.00

30. N.G. Gregory, 1998. Animal Welfare and Meat Science. Cab International.

31. H.M.J. Howells et al, 1999. Influence of the number of days spent training in an abattoir on the efficiency of do-it-yourself artificial insemination. Veterinary Record 144, 310-314.

32. Farmers Weekly, 12.09.97. Abattoir based DIY AI training is best.

33. Jane McWilliam, MAFF Animal Health (International Trade) Branch F, 22.06.00. Letter to Viva!.

34. J. Webster, 1995. Animal Welfare: A Cool Eye Towards Eden. Blackwell Science.

35. G.H. Singleton, H. Dobson, 1996. A survey to establish why pregnant cows are culled. British Cattle Veterinary Association.

36. N.G. Gregory, S.B. Wotton, 1984. Sheep slaughtering Procedures I. Survey of abattoir practice. British Veterinary Journal 140, 281-286.

37. Miriam Parker, Humane Slaughter Association, 07.02.00. Letter to Viva!.

38. C.J. Cook et al, 1995. The effect of electrical head-only stun duration on electroencephalographic-measured seizure and brain amino acid neurotransmitter release. Meat Science 40, 137-147.

39. N.G. Gregory, S.B. Wotton, 1984. Sheep slaughtering procedures II: Time to loss of brain responsiveness after exsanguination or cardiac arrest. British Veterinary Journal 140, 354-360.

40. N.G. Gregory, S.B. Wotton, 1985. Sheep slaughtering procedures IV: Responsiveness of the brain following electrical stunning. British Veterinary Journal 141, 74-81.

41. N.G. Gregory, S.B. Wotton, 1988. Sheep slaughtering procedures V. Responsiveness to potentially painful stimuli following electrical stunning, British Veterinary Journal 144, 573-580.

42. Steve Wotton, 14.01.00. Letter to Viva!.

43. Steve Wotton, 24.01.00. Letter to Viva!.

44. Dr Harold Hillman, 11.05.00. Telephone conversation with Viva!.

45. Dr Harold Hillman, 15.05.00. Fax to Viva!

46. MAFF and MLC. Feeding pigs prior to slaughter. CAMBAC JMA Research, Wiltshire

47. PD Wares, 1996. The consequences of fighting between mixed groups of unfamiliar pigs before slaughter. Meat Focus International (March edition), 89-91.

48. TG Knolls et al, 1996. Ambient temperatures below which pigs should not be continuously showered in the large. The Veterinary Record 143, 575-578.

49. M.H. Anil, J.L. McIntyre, 1998. Variations in electrical stunning tong placements and relative consequences in slaughter pigs. The Veterinary Journal 55, 85-90.

50. J.M. Spray, S.B. Wotton, 1997. The design of pig stunning electrodes - a review. Meat Science 47, 125-133.

51. M.H. Anil, J.L. McIntyre, 1993. Results of a survey of pig abattoirs in England and Wales. MAFF.

52. S.B. Wotton, N.G. Gregory, 1986. Pig slaughtering procedures: Time to loss of brain responsiveness after exsanguination or cardiac arrest. Research in Veterinary Science 40, 148-151.

53. A.B.M. Raj, N.G. Gregory, 1996. Welfare implications of the gas stunning of pigs 2. Stress of induction of anaesthesia. Animal Welfare 5, 71-78. 54. A.B.M. Raj et al, 1997. Welfare implications of gas stunning pigs 3. The time to loss of somatosensory evoked potentials and spontaneous electrocorticogram of pigs during exposure to gases. The Veterinary Journal 153, 329-340.

55. A.B.M. Raj, N.B. Gregory, 1995. Welfare implications of the gas stunning of pigs 1. Determination of aversion to the initial inhalation of carbon dioxide or argon, Animal Welfare 4: 273-280.

56. Farm Animal Welfare Council statement, 01.05.97.

57. R. McCamley, 1992. The welfare aspects of poultry slaughter on farms. The Meat Hygienist, December edition, 5-11.

58. N.G. Gregory, S.B. Wotton, 1990. Comparison of neck dislocation and percussion of the head on visual evoked responses in the chicken's brain. The Veterinary Record 126, 570-572.

59. N.G. Gregory, S.D. Austin, 1992. Causes of trauma in broilers arriving dead at poultry processing plants, Veterinary Record 31, 501-503.

60. J. Gellatley, 1996. The Silent Ark. Thorsons.

61. The Guardian, 13.03.92. Bone defects found in most fast-growth oven chickens.

62. The Guardian, 29.01.00. Having chicken for Sunday lunch.

63. M. Raj, 1998. Welfare During Stunning and Slaughter of Poultry. Poultry Science 77, 1815-1819.

64. N.G. Gregory, P.E. Whittington, 1992. Inhalation of water during electrical stunning in chickens. Research in Veterinary Science 53, 360-362.

65. RSPCA farm animals information, 1997. The slaughter of poultry.

66. N.G. Gregory, S.B. Wotton, 1994. Effect of electrical stunning current on the duration of insensibility in hens, British Poultry Science 35, 463-465.

67. N.G. Gregory, S.B. Wotton, 1991. Effect of electrical stunning on somatosensory evoked responses in the turkey's brain. British Veterinary Journal 147, 270-274.

68. N.G. Gregory, 1989. Stunning and Slaughter. In: G.C. Mead (editor), Processing of Poultry. Holborn.

69. Jane Downes, Principal Official Veterinary Surgeon, MHS, 10.02.00. Letter to Viva!.