Vegetarians International Voice for Animals

12. References

References

1                   -Pigs, cows, sheep, poultry, goats - Defra (www.defra.gov.uk) Economics and Statistics, 2005 (provisional) or 2004 (actual)
1a                   Deer, rabbits – Food Standards Agency (www.food.gov.uk), 2004
1b                  -Fish – Viva! estimate based on Defra stats, see ref 19 and www.viva.org.uk; Shellfish based on Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture stats, 2005.
2                   Viva! investigation, The Mother Cage, 2004

3                   Viva! investigations, Pig in Hell, 2001 and Piggles 2005 (see www.viva.org.uk)

4                  Viva! report, Pig in Hell – a Report on the British Pig Industry, 2001

5                  ‘Bone Defects Found in Most Fast-growth Oven Chickens’ The Guardian, March 13, 1992

5a                  -Weeks, C.A. et al, The behaviour of broiler chickens and its modification by lameness. App. An. Behav. Sci. 67: 111-125, 2000

6                  -EU Scientific Committee on Animal health and Animal Welfare, The Welfare of Chickens Kept for Meat production (Broilers). EC, Health and Consumer protection Directorate General, 2000

7                  Webster, J., Animal Welfare: A Cool Eye Towards Eden, Blackwell Science, 1995

8                  British Egg Information Service, www.britegg.co.uk/beissection/startsection.html, 2006

9                  -Gentle, M. J., et al, Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 27, 1990, pp.149-57
                  Gentle, M. J., Beak Trimming in Poultry, World’s Poultry Science Journal, 42, 1986, pp.268-75
                  Gentle, M. J., Pain in Birds, Animal Welfare, 1, 1987, 4
                  -Grigor, P., et al, Effect of Beak Trimming on the Growth and Behaviour of Turkeys, Veterinary Record, 18 March, 1995

10                  ‘£10 million Study into Battery Chicken Deformities’, The Independent, March 13, 1992

11                  -Appleby, M. C., Do Hens Suffer in Battery Cages?, A Review of the Scientific Evidence Commissioned by Athene Trust, Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, October 1991, p.2

12                  See 8

13                  Defra, Agriculture in the UK, 2005

14                  See 13

 

15                  - The Farm Animal Welfare Council, Report on the Welfare of Sheep, MAFF (now Defra) Publications, April 1994, p.22

16                  Viva!, End of the Line, 2005

17                  See 7

18                  Viva! report, The Dark Side of Dairy, 2005

19                  Defra (2005), United Kingdom Sea Fisheries Statistics 2004

20                  UNFAO, State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2002

21                  -Chandroo K. P. et al, Can Fish Suffer?: Perspectives on Sentience, Pain, Fear and Stress. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 86, pp.225-250, 2004

22                  See 7

23                  -Hunting T.C., Feeding the Fish: Sustainable Fish Feed and Scottish Aquaculture, Report to the Joint Marine Programme (Scottish Wildlife Trust and WWF Scotland) and RSPB Scotland, 2004

24                  Fisheries Research Service (2004) Scottish Fish Farms Annual Production Survey 2002

25                  Viva! report, Going for the Kill, 2000

26                  - Scientific Veterinary Committee Animal Welfare Section, 1996. Report on the Slaughter and Killing of Animals. Directorate-General for Agriculture; European Commission

27                  See 26

28                  RSPCA Farm Animals information, March 1999, The Slaughter of Food Animals

29                  See 26

30                  -Anil, M.H. et al, Welfare of Calves - 2. Increase in Vertebral Artery Blood Flow following Exsanguination by Neck Sticking and Evaluation of Chest Sticking as an Alternative Slaughter Method. Meat Science, vol 41, 2, 113-123, 1995

31                  Broom, D.M. & Fraser, A.F. 1996. Farm Animal Behaviour & Welfare. Bailliere Tindall