1. Ben Bradshaw, 15.09.99, Letter to Viva!.
2. Farm Animal Reform Movement press release, 14.12.99
3. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food: Annual figures
4. MAFF, January 2000. Meat Hygiene Enforcement Report.
5. The Welfare of Animals (Slaughter or Killing) Regulations
1995. HMSO Publication.
6. European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General,
1999. Final report of a mission carried out in the United
Kingdom from 30 July to 6 August concerning food production:
7. Jane Downes, Principal Official Veterinary Surgeon, MHS,
12.05.00. Letter to Viva!
8. Temple Grandin, 1998. Objective scoring of animal handling
and stunning practices at slaughter plants. The Meat Hygienist,
9. Meat Hygiene Service, 2000. Animal Welfare Review.
10. Meat Hygiene Service, 1997/8. Animal Welfare Survey.
11. N.G. Gregory, 1996, Welfare and Hygiene During Preslaughter
Handling. Meat Science 43, 35-46.
12. R.R. Cawthorne, 03.02.00. Letter to Viva!.
13. Correspondence between Viva! and abattoir owners, 1999.
14. Farm Animal Welfare Council, 1999. Annual Review 99/2000.
15. Farm Animal Welfare Council, 1984. Report on the Welfare
of Livestock (Red Meat Animals) at the Time of Slaughter.
16. MAFF, 1996. Guidance Note on the Licensing and Training
17. Scientific Veterinary Committee Animal Welfare Section.
1996. Report of the Slaughter and Killing of Animals. Directorate-General
for Agriculture; European Commission.
18. M. Benneworth, MAFF Animal Welfare Division Branch D,
19.01.00. Letter to Viva!.
19. Jane Downes, Principal Official Veterinary Surgeon, MHS,
19.01.00 Letter to Viva!.
20. RSPCA Farm Animals Information, March 1999. The Slaughter
of Food Animals.
21. Department of Food Animal Science web-site: www.bris.ac.uk/Depts/DFAS/research.html
22. A.B.M. Raj, 1996. Aversive Reactions of turkeys to argon,
carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide and argon.
The Veterinary Record 138, 592-593.
23. S. Wotton, 1996. Sticking techniques and exsanguination
in pigs, sheep and calves, Meat Focus International (July
24. Humane Slaughter Association, 1998. Captive Bolt Stunning
of Livestock, 2nd Edition.
25. C.C. Day, P.E. Whittington, 1990. A survey of commercial
practices used in the stunning of cattle. The Times, 23.02.90.
26. McDonalds and AMI (American Meat Institute) Foundation.
Video: 'Good Animal Handling for Beef Processors'.
27. R. Ewbank et al, 1992. Reactions of cattle to head-restraint
at stunning: a practical dilemma. Animal Welfare 1: 55-63.
28. M.H. Anil, 1999. Potential contamination of beef carcasses
with brain tissue at slaughter. Paper sent to Viva! before
29. Viva! press release, 21.10.00
30. N.G. Gregory, 1998. Animal Welfare and Meat Science.
31. H.M.J. Howells et al, 1999. Influence of the number of
days spent training in an abattoir on the efficiency of do-it-yourself
artificial insemination. Veterinary Record 144, 310-314.
32. Farmers Weekly, 12.09.97. Abattoir based DIY AI training
33. Jane McWilliam, MAFF Animal Health (International Trade)
Branch F, 22.06.00. Letter to Viva!.
34. J. Webster, 1995. Animal Welfare: A Cool Eye Towards
Eden. Blackwell Science.
35. G.H. Singleton, H. Dobson, 1996. A survey to establish
why pregnant cows are culled. British Cattle Veterinary Association.
36. N.G. Gregory, S.B. Wotton, 1984. Sheep slaughtering Procedures
I. Survey of abattoir practice. British Veterinary Journal
37. Miriam Parker, Humane Slaughter Association, 07.02.00.
Letter to Viva!.
38. C.J. Cook et al, 1995. The effect of electrical head-only
stun duration on electroencephalographic-measured seizure
and brain amino acid neurotransmitter release. Meat Science
39. N.G. Gregory, S.B. Wotton, 1984. Sheep slaughtering procedures
II: Time to loss of brain responsiveness after exsanguination
or cardiac arrest. British Veterinary Journal 140, 354-360.
40. N.G. Gregory, S.B. Wotton, 1985. Sheep slaughtering procedures
IV: Responsiveness of the brain following electrical stunning.
British Veterinary Journal 141, 74-81.
41. N.G. Gregory, S.B. Wotton, 1988. Sheep slaughtering procedures
V. Responsiveness to potentially painful stimuli following
electrical stunning, British Veterinary Journal 144, 573-580.
42. Steve Wotton, 14.01.00. Letter to Viva!.
43. Steve Wotton, 24.01.00. Letter to Viva!.
44. Dr Harold Hillman, 11.05.00. Telephone conversation with
45. Dr Harold Hillman, 15.05.00. Fax to Viva!
46. MAFF and MLC. Feeding pigs prior to slaughter. CAMBAC
JMA Research, Wiltshire
47. PD Wares, 1996. The consequences of fighting between
mixed groups of unfamiliar pigs before slaughter. Meat Focus
International (March edition), 89-91.
48. TG Knolls et al, 1996. Ambient temperatures below which
pigs should not be continuously showered in the large. The
Veterinary Record 143, 575-578.
49. M.H. Anil, J.L. McIntyre, 1998. Variations in electrical
stunning tong placements and relative consequences in slaughter
pigs. The Veterinary Journal 55, 85-90.
50. J.M. Spray, S.B. Wotton, 1997. The design of pig stunning
electrodes - a review. Meat Science 47, 125-133.
51. M.H. Anil, J.L. McIntyre, 1993. Results of a survey of
pig abattoirs in England and Wales. MAFF.
52. S.B. Wotton, N.G. Gregory, 1986. Pig slaughtering procedures:
Time to loss of brain responsiveness after exsanguination
or cardiac arrest. Research in Veterinary Science 40, 148-151.
53. A.B.M. Raj, N.G. Gregory, 1996. Welfare implications
of the gas stunning of pigs 2. Stress of induction of anaesthesia.
Animal Welfare 5, 71-78. 54. A.B.M. Raj et al, 1997. Welfare
implications of gas stunning pigs 3. The time to loss of somatosensory
evoked potentials and spontaneous electrocorticogram of pigs
during exposure to gases. The Veterinary Journal 153, 329-340.
55. A.B.M. Raj, N.B. Gregory, 1995. Welfare implications
of the gas stunning of pigs 1. Determination of aversion to
the initial inhalation of carbon dioxide or argon, Animal
Welfare 4: 273-280.
56. Farm Animal Welfare Council statement, 01.05.97.
57. R. McCamley, 1992. The welfare aspects of poultry slaughter
on farms. The Meat Hygienist, December edition, 5-11.
58. N.G. Gregory, S.B. Wotton, 1990. Comparison of neck dislocation
and percussion of the head on visual evoked responses in the
chicken's brain. The Veterinary Record 126, 570-572.
59. N.G. Gregory, S.D. Austin, 1992. Causes of trauma in
broilers arriving dead at poultry processing plants, Veterinary
Record 31, 501-503.
60. J. Gellatley, 1996. The Silent Ark. Thorsons.
61. The Guardian, 13.03.92. Bone defects found in most fast-growth
62. The Guardian, 29.01.00. Having chicken for Sunday lunch.
63. M. Raj, 1998. Welfare During Stunning and Slaughter of
Poultry. Poultry Science 77, 1815-1819.
64. N.G. Gregory, P.E. Whittington, 1992. Inhalation of water
during electrical stunning in chickens. Research in Veterinary
Science 53, 360-362.
65. RSPCA farm animals information, 1997. The slaughter of
66. N.G. Gregory, S.B. Wotton, 1994. Effect of electrical
stunning current on the duration of insensibility in hens,
British Poultry Science 35, 463-465.
67. N.G. Gregory, S.B. Wotton, 1991. Effect of electrical
stunning on somatosensory evoked responses in the turkey's
brain. British Veterinary Journal 147, 270-274.
68. N.G. Gregory, 1989. Stunning and Slaughter. In: G.C.
Mead (editor), Processing of Poultry. Holborn.
69. Jane Downes, Principal Official Veterinary Surgeon, MHS,
10.02.00. Letter to Viva!.